Brief Overview - Connie Tindale and Charles Woods

The Middle Kingdom was a time of political unity and during the 11th Dynasty Egypt was ruled from Thebes but later moved to Lisht, which was south of Memphis. There appears to have been some power-sharing and co-regency during this time as various stellae give an overlap of dates recounting the feats is various kings which makes dating their reigns difficult.

Montuhotep II was one of Egypt’s greatest kings. He re-unified the two lands after the divisions which followed the end of the Old Kingdom. He was revered well into the 20th dynasty where paintings of him appeared in 20th dynasty tombs. While there was great artistic development in tomb building during the period there appears to have been a decline in building large-scale monuments.

In religion, a marked growth occurred in the cult of Osiris and he became of the Great God of all the necropolises. One of the reasons for this rise was the patronage which rulers of the 12th Dynasty lavished on him in Abydos. Funerary rites then spread from being reserved for royalty to becoming available to common individuals and in an effort to enter the afterlife, mummification became widespread but it was not very effective. A further innovation was the introduction of the Shabti figure. These were small statuettes made from various materials which simulated retainers and workers of the king. It was believed that they would magically come to life in the Underworld and do the bidding of the deceased king who had become the Osiris.


--------------.....-11th Dynasty - Amenemhat III ------------------------12th Dynasty - Karnak - Senwosret I--- ----13th Dynasty - Meryankhre Mentuhotep VI ---

Under the rulers of the Middle Kingdom, Egypt became more active in Nubia, Asia and the Aegean and benefited from increased trade in various materials, products and ideas. It was an age of prosperity, invention and vision. Unfortunately, it was not to last as Egypt once again fragmented and lapsed into a period of recession and chaos, known as the Second Intermediate Period.

By the start of the 17th Dynasty Egypt had been essentially divided between the Hyksos to the north (15th dynasty) and the native Egyptian kings to the south (16th/17th dynasties) for over half a century. The native line abandoned Lisht and once again made their Capital Thebes. Original hostilities seem to have died down and the two sides seemed to co-operate with one another.

However, King Kamose towards the end of the 17th Dynasty seems to have engaged in hostilities with the Hyksos and appears to have forced them back to their stronghold at Avaris. Kamos failed to expel the Hyksos, but his brother Ahmose some years later succeeded in driving them out of Egypt and inaugurated the 18th dynasty. Thus began the New Kingdom period, one of Egypt's most glorious and illustrious times.

middle kingdom
11(b) Dynasty - (all egypt) - c 2066 1994 bce
Prenomen (Throne Name)
Birth Name
Dates of Reign
Nebhepetre Montjuhotpe II
 2066 - 2014
Sankhkare MontjuhotpeIII
 2014 - 2001
Nebtawyre Montjuhotpe IV
 2001 - 1994
12th Dynasty - c 1994 - 1781
Birth Name
Dates of Reign
Sehetepibre Ammenemes I
Kheperkare Senwosret I
 ? - 1929 (?)
Nubkhaure Ammenemes II
 ?- 1896 (?)
Khakheperre Senwosret II
 ? - 1880 (?)
Khakaure Senwosret III
Nimaetre Ammenemes III
 1840-1794 (?)
Maekherure Ammenemes IV
 1794-1785 (?)
Sobkkare (Queen) Sobkneferu
13th Dynasty / 14th dybasty - c 1781 - 1650
This is a difficult period which is still under debate and involved commoners as well as kings. There appears to be more than one family or dynasty involved, and the following list is only meant as a rough guide and may not be in the correct order. Dates are not inserted as this is still a matter for conjecture
Birth Name
Dates of Reign
Sekemre-khutawi Sobkhotpe I  
Sekhemkare Sonbef  
Nerikare ?  
Sekhemkare Ammenemes V  
Sehetepibre Qemau  
Sankhibre Ammenemes VI  
Smenkhare Nebnuni  
(?) Iufeni  
Hotepibre Sihornedjhiryotef  
Swadjkare (?)  
Nedjemibre (?)  
Khaankhre Sobkhotpe II  
Sekhemre-khutawi Renisonbe  
Auibre Hor  
Sedjefakare Ammenemes VII  
Khutawire Wegaf  
Userkare/Nikhanimaetre Khendjer  
Smenkhkare Imyromesha  
Sehotepkare Inyotef IV  
Meryibre Seth  
Sekhemre-swadjitawi Sobkhotpe III  
Khasekhemre Neferhotpe I  
Menwsadjre Sihathor  
Khaneferre Sobkhotpe IV  
Merhotepre Sobkhotpe V  
Khahetepre Sobkhotpe VI  
Wahibre Iaib  
Merneferre Aya  
Merhetepre Ini  
Sankhenre Sewadjtu  
Mersekhemre Ined  
Sewadjkare .Hori  
Merkaure Sobkhotpe VII  
Mershepsesre Ini  
Mersekhemre Neferhotpe II  
Merkheperre (?)  
Merkare (?)  
Sewadjare Mentuhotpe V  
Seheqaenre Sankhptahi  
Sekhaenre (?)  
Sewahenre Senebmiu  
15th Dynasty - hyksos - c 1650 - 1535
Birth Name
Dates of Reign
(?) Semqen
1650 - ?
(?) Aper-anati
(?) Sakirhar
Seuserenre Khyan
Nebkhepeshre Apepi
? 1585 - 1545
(?) Khamudy
1545 - 1535
16th Dynasty - c 1650 - 1590
Theban rulers contemporary with the 15th dynasty (Hyksos)
Birth Name
Dates of Reign
Sekhemre-smentawi Djehuty
Sekhemre-sewosertawi Sobkhotpe VIII
Sekhemre-seankhtawi Neferhotpe III
Sankhenre Montjuhotpi
Swadjenre Nebiriau
Neferkare (?) Nebiriau II
Semenre (?)
Seuserenre Bebiankh
Sekhemreshedwaset (?)
Djedhotepre Dedumose I.
Djedneferre Dedumose II
Djedankhre Montjuemsaf
Merankhre Montjuhotpe VI
Seneferibre Sesostris IV
17th Dynasty - c 1585 - 1549
Birth Date
Dates of Reign
Sekhemre-wahkhau Rehotpe
Sekhemre-shedtawi Sobkemsaf I
Sekhemre-wepmaet Inyotef V
Nubkheperre Inyotef VI
Sekhemre-heruhirmaet Inyotef VII
Sekhemre-wadjkhau Sobkemsaf II
Senakhtenre Taa I
?- 1558
Seqenenre Taa II
Wadjkheperre Kamose
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